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XRD is based on the optical interferences produced when a monochromatic radiation cross a split of similar thickness to the wave length of the radiation. The x-ray wave length is around Angstroms, it means they are at the same order than inter atomic distances of the crystal structures. When the sample to be analyzed is irradiated with x-rays, these are diffracted with angles that are depending of the inter-atomic distances. The Powder Diffraction Method (or Debye-Scherrer method) consists in the radiation of a powder sample. The sample is formed by many small crystals oriented in all possible directions. In this case, the diffraction obeys to the Bragg law (nλ = 2dsenθ), where 'd' is the distance between inter atomic planes.
XRD is a non-destructive, high technology method for the analysis of a broad range of materials, metals, minerals, polymers, catalysts, plastics, pharmaceutical products, fine thin recovered materials, ceramics and semi-conductors, even fluids. The main application is the qualitative identification of crystallographic phases in a crystalline sample.
Other applications are, the quantitative analysis of crystalline compounds, the determination of many parameters like crystal size, coefficient of thermal expansion, etc, as well as, determine the crystal symmetry, the assignation of distances of some family planes and the calculation of crystallographic parameters.
Bruker D8-Advance with mirror Goebel (non-planar samples) with high temperature Chamber (up to 900°C), with a generator of x-ray KRISTALLOFLEX K 760-80F (power: 3000W, voltage: 20-60KV and current: 5-80mA) with a tube of RX with copper anode. Available from the database of the ICDD (International Center for Diffraction Data).